|Report turn around time||After 3 Days|
This profile consists of the following tests PAPP-A, Free Beta HCG, PLGF(Placental Growth Factor). This test is also called the Double Marker test or The Double Marker. This test is done in pregnant women in the first trimester. The double marker test usually only consists of 2 parameters as the name suggests. PAPP-A and Free Beta HCG. We have named this profile Dual Marker Plus since it also has a 3rd parameter, which is PLGF(Placental Growth Factor). This apart from detecting trisomies, also aids in detecting risk of pre-eclampsia in the first trimester itself. Those at high risk can be started on Aspirin immediately and the risk of pre-eclampsia can be reduced.
Pre-eclampsia, which affects about 2 to 8 % of pregnancies, is a major cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. First clinical symptoms of pre-eclampsia such as new onset of hypertension and proteinuria are observed after 20 weeks of gestation. Clinically, pre-eclampsia may vary from mild to severe forms, requiring delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. The severe form of pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets), occurs in about 20 % of women affected by pre-eclampsia.
The first-trimester screening strategy to identify pregnant women at risk for developing pre-eclampsia includes assessment of maternal history, blood pressure and uterine artery Doppler velocimetry as well as measurement of biomarkers in the maternal blood (e.g. PAPP-A and PlGF). For false-positive rates of 5 to 10 % such a screening approach has been described to identify up to 90 % of pregnancies at risk for early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks.
In pregnancies affected with fetal trisomy 21, first-trimester maternal serum PlGF levels are substantially reduced compared with unaffected pregnancies. Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal abnormality in neonates followed by trisomy 18 and trisomy 13.
Latest study results demonstrate that PlGF, as a 3rd biomarker, can improve the performance of first-trimester combined test in screening for trisomy 21 by increasing the detection rate by 2 to 8 % and reducing the false-positive rate by 0.1 to 2 % at the same time.
To Conclude, A Dual marker plus is the best, most cost-effective option for first-trimester screening for Trisomies as well as pre-eclampsia. If it is high risk on this test, further testing by NIPT or by Amniocentesis should be carried out. To read more about Pre-eclampsia in India please click here