Get a health checkup done once a year with the Comprehensive Body Profile to identify any underlying health issues before they become serious and difficult to treat.
A preventive comprehensive body profile should be done, especially of you have risk factors like
Comprehensive Body Profile includes tests such as
The complete blood count provides information regarding the Hemoglobin content of blood, the total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, the total red blood cell count , red blood cell indices and the total platelet count.
Hemoglobin (Hb) is needed for the transport of oxygen to the various tissues in the body and carry away carbon dioxide. The hemoglobin concentration helps you to identify the presence of anemia (Low Hemoglobin content). Those with low hemoglobin concentration may complain of weakness, tiredness, shortness of breath, light headedness , fatigue and lethargy.
Low hemoglobin concentration could because of nutritional deficiency of Iron, vitamin B12 or Folic Acid. Loss of blood as well as chronic kidney or liver disease can result in low Hemoglobin. Some genetic disorders like thalassemia may cause low Hb and the symptoms may range from no symptoms at all to symptoms of severe anemia, needing blood transfusions. Many a times the beta thalassemia trait is diagnosed incidentally, from a complete blood count, where the Hemoglobin low, MCV is Low, RBC count is high and the MCHC is high as well. Confirmation of the diagnosis would require performing Hb electrophoresis.
White Blood cells are responsible to provide protection and immunity from harmful organisms and play a significant role in hypersensitivity/allergic reactions. The white blood cells include Neutrophils, Eosinphils, Basophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes. Neutrophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes play an important role in immunity whereas Eosinophils are important in protection against parasites and are responsible for allergic reactions.
Total and Differential White Blood Cell Count (WBC) helps to identify the presence of any underlying infection. A bacterial infection may result in an elevated total WBC count , with a increase in the proportion of Neutrophils in the blood. A low WBC count may be seen in viral fevers ( eg. influenza, dengue, chikungunya etc) and severe bacterial infections.
Low WBC count due to chemotherapy or prolonged steroid treatment can make a person more susceptible to infections. Repeated infections may also be a symptoms of some immune deficiency which may be present from birth or acquired.
Red Blood Cell Indices such as MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume) , MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin) and MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration) give the clinicians a clue as to the cause of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia usually has a Low MCV, MCH and MCHC whereas anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency have a high MCV and MCH. Anemia due to chronic disease may have a normal MCV,MCH and MCHC or it may be slightly reduced.
Platelets play an important role in clotting of blood. Lack of platelets, either due to less production of platelets or increased destruction can result in bleeding from different sites like the nose, conjunctiva, venepuncture sites etc. Platelet counts are often reduced in viral infections like dengue, chikungunya and in certain parasitic infections like malaria. Low platelet count may be seen in conditions like aplastic anemia where the bone marrow doesn't produce enough platelets. In addition to low platelets there would be low Hb and WBC count as well
ESR is the rate a which the Red Blood cell Settle down when a tube of anticoagulated blood is kept standing for an hour. It is measured as mm/hr. ESR is raised in several conditions and can give the doctor a clue to the presence of an underlying infection or inflammation.
ESR is a useful aid in the diagnosis of conditions like temporal arteritis, rheumatoid arhritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Very High ESR rates (> 100 mm/hr) are also seen in conditions like cancer and tuberculosis.
ESR is affected by age , sex, pregnancy, drugs and hematocrit levels. ESR is not used for the definitive diagnosis of disease but serves as clue to further workup the patient in case the values are high.
Fasting and post lunch sugar is used in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and prediabetic conditions. Fasting of atleast 8 hours is essential. During these 8 hours no food or beverage is permitted except water. The post lunch values should be taken precisely 2 hours after meals. The calculation of 2 hours should start once the first morsel of food is consumed.
According to the American Diabetes Association , the following are the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
1. Fasting blood glucose 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L). Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 hours
2. Two hour post glucose 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests. The test should be performed
as described by the WHO, using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75-g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water.
3. HbA1C (Glycosylated Hemoglobin) > 6.5 %
4. In a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis, a random plasma glucose 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L).
“Prediabetes” is the term used for individuals whose blood glucose levels do not meet the criteria for the diagnosis for diabetes but are still considered higher than normal values
Prediabetes is defined as impaired Fasting Blood Sugar level between 100 - 125 mg/dl
Post prandial blood glucose levels between 160 -199 mg/dl
HBA1c values between 5.7 - 6.5%
Those with prediabetes, have an increased risk of developing cardiac disease and diabetes in the future .Prediabetes is associated with obesity , abnormal lipid levels and high blood pressure . Lifestyle changes such as changes in diet and addition of exercise can reverse the metabolic process, before it proceeds to diabetes mellitus.
Lipid profile tests for the Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol , VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) , Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio.
Lipids are fats namely Cholesterol and Triglycerides, carried in the body by particles known as Lipoproteins.
High Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol, increases the risk of heart disease, as these lipids accumulate within the wall of the arteries and cause narrowing of the lumen due to plaque formation. Some of these plaques may rupture and cause complete occlusion of the blood vessel.
Because of the complete occlusion of the blood vessel, the tissues supplied by the vessels don't get enough blood supply and die. This is one of the mechanism by which people get a heart attack or stroke. For this reason LDL is known as the "Bad Cholesterol"
HDL is responsible for carrying the cholesterol from the blood vessels back to the liver for storage/metabolism, thereby clearing the circulation of unwanted cholesterol. Therefore, HDL is commonly known as the "good cholesterol"
A balance between the HDL and LDL cholesterol is needed to maintain optimum lipid levels in the circulation. A healthy balanced diet in which about 30 % of the total calories come from fats, is needed to sustain good health and reduce the risk of heart disease. Most of the fats should be Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) rather than saturated fats and are essential for brain function and cellular growth.
Polyunsaturated fats are usually liquids at room temperature and consists of 2 main categories: namely the omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. These are essential fatty acids, as the body cannot generate these compounds on its own and depends on them from external food sources.
Liver Profile tests for the following Parameters
The Liver plays an important part in carbohydrate , protein and fat metabolism and also is responsible for the production of bile and storage of several important proteins and fats, like albumin and cholesterol. Liver profile is helpful in identifying conditions in which there is damage to the liver cells or the bile channel that transport bile from the liver to the gall bladder and then there onwards to the intestine.
Liver enzymes like AST and ALT are elevated whenever there is damage to the liver cells . This can occur in conditions like Hepatitis A,B,C,E. Hepatitis A and E are viral infections that spread by the faeco-oral route and present with symptoms of jaundice, nausea , vomitting, loss of appetite and lethargy. The liver enzymes in these cases are usually more than 5 times the normal values. Hepatitis A and E are usually self-limiting and resolve with symptomatic treatment.
Hepatitis B and C can result in chronic hepatitis lasting for several years. Long term inflammation can lead to liver cirrhosis and in some cases liver cancer. Such cases may show mildly elevated AST and ALT liver enzymes and with reduced total protein and reduced albumin concentration.
Other causes of cirrhosis include inflammatory conditions like autoimmune hepatitis ,bile duct obstruction, alcoholic liver disease, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, Budd Chiari syndrome, cystic fibrosis, glycogen storage disease, certain drugs.
Total bilirubin is divided into conjugated (Direct) and unconjugated (Indirect) bilirubin. Increase in bilirubin presents as yellowish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, known as Jaundice. The cause of jaundice could be due to conditions wherein there is increased destruction of Red Blood Cells and subsequent increase in Unconjugated Bilirubin. Increase in conjugated bilirubin occurs in conditions where there is damage to the liver, the bile carrying vessels or obstruction to the bile ducts. High levels of bilirubin are toxic to the neurons in the brain and cause brain damage.
Gamma Glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme in the liver which is increased in cases of damage to the liver or the bile ducts. GGT is one of the first enzymes to rise whenever there is damage to the bile ducts. However it does not help in distinguishing in the different causes of liver injury. It is seldom used alone and is evaluated taking into account the other parameters that are part of the liver enzymes.
Even small amounts of alcohol can cause a temporary increase in the levels of GGT. Higher GGT levels are found in chronic alcohol abuse rather than those who binge drink. Thus, it could be used to differentiate between acute and chronic alcohol abuse.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in the liver as well as the bones, kidneys and the digestive tract. GGT is used along with Alkaline phosphatase, to identify whether the increase in ALP is due to liver injury or due to some other reason like bone disorder, kidney or intestinal disorder.
Comprehensive Body Profile also includes investigation that test the Kidney Function. The tests include
Kidneys play a very important role in removal of waste products from the body and maintaining the balance of water and electrolytes. Tests like Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine help to identify if the kidney is functioning optimally to eliminate the waste products. In cases of kidney damage or reduced kidney function, the waste products like urea and creatinine are not eliminated. These products are toxic to the body and produce symptoms like nausea, vomiting, loos of appetite, fatigue, itching over the body, altered mental state. If the kidney function further decline, dialysis of the blood is needed to eliminate the same.
Kidneys also maintain the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body by controlling their elimination in the urine. Calcium and phosphorus are absorbed from the intestines and also partly from the bones. Their levels are maintained in the blood by the feedback of the parathyroid hormone (released from the parathyroid glands). The parathryoid hormone (PTH) stimulates the kidney to excrete phosphorus and retain calcium. Kidneys also produce 1, 25 (OH) vitamin D that is needed for calcium and phosphorus absorption from the intestines.
High blood pressure & Diabetes Mellitus are common causes of gradually declining kidney function. Other causes may include infection of kidney and/or the urinary tract, obstruction of the urinary tract by stones or tumor, decreased blood supply to kidney due to narrowing of the renal arteries or low blood pressure due to hypovolemic or septicemic shock. Inflammation of the renal filtration unit and tubules (glomerulonephritis) also result in reduced kidney function.
Urine routine examination detects the pH and specific gravity of urine. It also checks for the presence of Glucose, protein, blood, ketones and urobilinogen in the urine. Microscopic examination gives identifies the presence of White Blood cells, Red Blood cells, casts , crystals, bacteria , yeasts, trichomonads, spermatozoa and parasites in the urine.
Diabetics may shows presence of glucose in the urine due to the increased blood sugar levels. Presence of increased protein may can be seen in several conditions like fever, intense exercise, diabetic nephropathy, glomerular diseases, renal failure etc. A urinary infection results in significant increase in the number of White blood cells and Red blood cells.
Red blood cells may also appear in the urinary due to inflammation of the Kidney, ureters, bladder or urethra.
Comprehensive Body profile tests for Vitamin B12, which plays an essential role in DNA synthesis and production of blood elements. Its is necessary for nerve health and brain health. A factor known as "intrinsic factor" produced by the stomach, is needed for the absorption of Vit B12. Deficiency of Vit B 12 can lead to
Vitamin B12 deficiency is commonly seen in vegetarians as most of the foods providing VIt B12 are of non-vegetarian origin. VIt B12 is not produced in the body and is needed from external food sources
The term vitamin D refers to Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) . Vitamin D3 is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, whereas Vitamin D2 is available from plant sources and enters the body through food. Vitamin D2 and D3 are inactive and have to be activated in the body through metabolism in the liver and kidney.
Vitamin D plays a vital role in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestines and is essential for good bone health. Vitamin D deficiency is also linked to several other illnesses, as it plays an important role in metabolism, immune system and controlling inflammation.
Vitamin D deficiency can produce the following symptoms
Comprehensive Body Profile also tests for T3 , T4 and TSH are thyroid hormones that play an important role in cellular metabolism and thermoregulation. T3 and T4 are released from the thyroid gland while TSH is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. TSH stimulates the production of T3 and T4.
Low levels of T3 and T4 result in Hypothyroidism. Patients with an underactive thyroid present with
Increase in Thyroid hormones results in Hyperthyroidism. Those with an overactive thyroid present with symptoms of
GlycoHb provides an estimate of blood glucose level control over the last 3 months. It measure the portion of hemoglobin than is irreversibly bound to glucose. This value is used for the diagnosis of Diabetes and monitoring of Blood Glucose levels in diabetics. According to The Amercian Diabetes Association (ADA) people with GlycoHb of 5.7 to 6.4 % are considered as Pre Diabetics and have a high risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Those with a GlycoHb equal to or more than 6.5 % on more than one occasion, are classified as diabetics.
GlycoHb can also help in calculating the mean/average plasma glucose levels. The advantage of GlycoHb levels over fasting and post meal blood glucose levels is that, GlycoHb provides information of long term blood glucose control and is not affected by food items consumed on the day or before the day of testing. Estimation of GlycoHb can be done at anytime of the day and does not require a fasting state.
Phadiatop is an investigation in the comprehensive body profile, that helps to identify the presence of allergy, by detecting the presence of Specific IgE antibodies against different allergens in the air. Phadiatop test is a cocktail of specific IgE antibodies for several respiratory allergens. High values indicate that the person is sensitive to a particular allergen and if there are symptoms of allergy, like repeated episodes of dry cough, runny nose, watering of the eyes, then it's likely to be due to an allergy.
A Comprehensive Body Profile test can be a helpful preventive screening to detect illnesses at an early stage and take appropriate action.
|Samples||serum,edta whole blood, urine sample,citrate whole blood,plasma fl.|
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